Peter Hachenberger and Lutz Kettner
In solid modeling, two major representation schemes are used: constructive solid geometry (CSG) and boundary representations (Brep). Both have inherent strengths and weaknesses, see [Hof89c] for a discussion.
In CSG a solid is represented as a settheoretic boolean combination of primitive solid objects, such as blocks, prisms, cylinders, or toruses. The boolean operations are not evaluated, instead, objects are represented implicitly with a tree structure; leaves represent primitive objects and interior nodes represent boolean operations or rigid motions, e.g., translation and rotation. Algorithms on such a CSGtree first evaluate properties on the primitive objects and propagate the results using the tree structure.
A Brep describes the incidence structure and the geometric properties of all lowerdimensional features of the boundary of a solid. Surfaces are oriented to decide between the interior and exterior of a solid.
The class of representable objects in a CSG is usually limited by the choice of the primitive solids. A Brep is usually limited by the choice for the geometry of the supporting curves for edges and the supporting surfaces for surface patches, and, in addition, the connectivity structure that is allowed. In particular, a Brep is not always closed under boolean set operations. As an example, the class of orientable 2manifold objects is a popular and well understood class of surfaces commonly used for Breps. They can be represented and manipulated efficiently, the data structures are compact in storage size, and many algorithms are simple. On the other side, this object class is not closed under boolean set operations, as many examples can illustrate, such as the Figure shown above that can be generated using boolean set operations on cubes. The vertices bounding the tunnel, or the edge connecting the ``roof'' with the cube are nonmanifold situations.
In our implementation of Nef polyhedra in 3D, we offer a Brep data structure that is closed under boolean operations and with all their generality. Starting from halfspaces (and also directly from oriented 2manifolds), we can work with set union, set intersection, set difference, set complement, interior, exterior, boundary, closure, and regularization operations (see Section 28.4 for an explaination of regularized set operations). In essence, we can evaluate a CSGtree with halfspaces as primitives and convert it into a Brep representation.
In fact, we work with two data structures; one that represents the local neighborhoods of vertices, which is in itself already a complete description, and a data structure that connects these neighborhoods up to a global data structure with edges, facets, and volumes. We offer a rich interface to investigate these data structures, their different elements and their connectivity. We provide affine (rigid) transformations and a point location query operation. We have a custom file format for storing and reading Nef polyhedra from files. We offer a simple OpenGLbased visualizer for debugging and illustrations.
The theory of Nef polyhedra has been developed for arbitrary dimensions. The class CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3 implements a boundary representation for the 3dimensional case.
Definition: A Nefpolyhedron in dimension d is a point set P ⊆ ℝ^{d} generated from a finite number of open halfspaces by set complement and set intersection operations.
Set union, difference and symmetric difference can be reduced to intersection and complement. Set complement changes between open and closed halfspaces, thus the topological operations boundary, interior, exterior, closure and regularization are also in the modeling space of Nef polyhedra.
A face of a Nef polyhedron is defined as an equivalence class of local pyramids that are a characterization of the local space around a point.
Definition: A point set K ⊆ ℝ^{d} is called a cone with apex 0, if K = ℝ^{+} K (i.e., ∀ p ∈ K, ∀ λ> 0: λp ∈ K) and it is called a cone with apex x, x ∈ ℝ^{d}, if K = x + ℝ^{+} (K  x). A cone K is called a pyramid if K is a polyhedron.
Now let P ∈ ℝ^{d} be a polyhedron and x ∈ ℝ^{d}. There is a neighborhood U_{0}(x) of x such that the pyramid Q := x + ℝ^{+} ((P ∩ U(x))  x) is the same for all neighborhoods U(x) ⊆ U_{0}(x). Q is called the local pyramid of P in x and denoted Pyr_{P}(x).
Definition: Let P ∈ ℝ^{d} be a polyhedron and x, y ∈ ℝ^{d} be two points. We define an equivalence relation x ∼ y iff Pyr_{P}(x) = Pyr_{P}(y). The equivalence classes of ∼ are the faces of P. The dimension of a face s is the dimension of its affine hull, dim s := dim affs.
In other words, a face s of P is a maximal nonempty subset of ℝ^{d} such that all of its points have the same local pyramid Q denoted Pyr_{P}(s). This definition of a face partitions ℝ^{d} into faces of different dimension. A face s is either a subset of P, or disjoint from P. We use this later in our data structure and store a selection mark in each face indicating its set membership.
Faces do not have to be connected. There are only two fulldimensional faces possible, one whose local pyramid is the space ℝ^{d} itself and the other with the empty set as a local pyramid. All lowerdimensional faces form the boundary of the polyhedron. As usual, we call zerodimensional faces vertices and onedimensional faces edges. In the case of polyhedra in space we call twodimensional faces facets and the fulldimensional faces volumes. Faces are relative open sets, e.g., an edge does not contain its endvertices.
We illustrate the definitions with an example in the plane. Given the closed halfspaces

The left figure illustrates the polyhedron with its partially closed and partially open boundary, i.e., vertex v_{4}, v_{5}, v_{6}, and edges e_{4} and e_{5} are not part of P. The local pyramids for the faces are Pyr_{P}(f_{1}) = ∅ and Pyr_{P}(f_{2}) = ℝ^{2}. Examples for the local pyramids of edges are the closed halfspace h_{2} for the edge e_{1}, Pyr_{P}(e_{1}) = h_{2}, and the open halfspace that is the complement of h_{4} for the edge e_{5}, Pyr_{P}(e_{5}) = {(x,y)  x  y < 1}. The edge e_{3} consists actually of two disconnected parts, both with the same local pyramid Pyr_{P}(e_{3}) = h_{1}. In our data structure, we will represent the two connected components of the edge e_{3} separately. The figure on the right lists all local pyramids for this example.
The local pyramids of each vertex are represented by conceptually intersecting the local neighborhood with a small εsphere. This intersection forms a planar map on the sphere (see next two figures), which together with the setselection mark for each item (i.e. vertices, edges, loops and faces) forms a twodimensional Nef polyhedron embedded in the sphere. We add the setselection mark for the vertex and call the resulting structure the sphere map of the vertex. We use the prefix s to distinguish the elements of the sphere map from the threedimensional elements. See Chapter 21 for further details.
Having sphere maps for all vertices of our polyhedron is a sufficient but not easily accessible representation of the polyhedron. We enrich the data structure with more explicit representations of all the faces and incidences between them.
We depart slightly from the definition of faces in a Nef polyhedron; we represent the connected components of a face individually and do not implement additional bookkeeping to recover the original faces (e.g., all edges on a common supporting line with the same local pyramid) as this is not needed in our algorithms. We discuss features in the increasing order of dimension.
For each face we store a label, e.g., a setselection mark, which indicates whether the face is part of the solid or if it is excluded. We call the resulting data structure Selective Nef Complex, SNC for short [GHH^{+}03]. However, in Cgal we identify the names and call the SNC data structure CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3.
We call a Nef polyhedron bounded if its boundary is bounded, i.e., finite, and unbounded otherwise. Note that unbounded point sets can have a bounded boundary, for example, the complement of a cube has an unbounded outer volume, but its boundary remains bounded.
Using a boundary representation, it is convenient (conceptually and in our implementation) to consider bounded Nef polyhedra only. Bounded Nef polyhedra are also closed under boolean set operations. However, one needs to start with bounded primitives; the conceptually nice halfspaces cannot be used. Instead, we offer a construction from oriented 2manifolds represented in a CGAL::Polyhedron_3, see Section 28.5.4 below.
In order to handle unbounded Nef polyhedra conceptually in the same way as we handle bounded Nef polyhedra, we intersect them with a bounding cubical volume of size [R,R]^{3}, where R is a symbolical unspecified value, which is finite but larger than all coordinate values that may occur in the bounded part of the polyhedron. As a result, each Nef polyhedron becomes bounded. We call the boundary of the bounding volume the infimaximal box [SM00].
We clip lines and rays at the infimaximal box. The intersection points with the infimaximal box are called nonstandard points, which are points whose coordinates are R or R in at least one dimension, and linear functions f(R) for the other dimensions. Such extended points (and developed from there also extended segments etc) are provided in Cgal with extended kernels  CGAL::Extended_cartesian and CGAL::Extended_homogeneous. They are regular Cgal kernels with a polynomial type as coordinate number type.
As long as an extended kernel is used, the full functionality provided by the CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3 class is available. If a kernel that does not use polynomials to represent coordinates is used, it is not possible to create or load unbounded Nef polyhedra, but all other operations work as expected. We provided both possibilities, since the restriction to bounded Nef polyhedra improves considerably space requirements (plain number type instead of polynomial), and runtime performance.
Since manifolds are not closed under boolean operations, Requicha proposes to use regularized set operations [KM76, Req80]. A set is regular, if it equals the closure of its interior. A regularized set operation is defined as the standard set operation followed by a regularization of the result. Regularized sets are closed under regularized set operations.
Regularized set operations are important since they simplify the class of solids to exclude lower dimensional features and the boundary belongs to the point set. These properties are considered to reflect the nature of physical solids more closely.
Regularized polyhedral sets are a subclass of Nef polyhedra. We provide the regularization operation as a shortcut for the consecutive execution of the interior and the closure operations.
The following example gives a first impression of how to instantiate and use Nef_polyhedron_3. We use the CGAL::Cartesian kernel. All Cartesian and homogeneous kernels of Cgal are suitable if the number type parameter follows the usual requirements of being a model of the CGAL::FieldNumberType concept for the Cartesian kernels, or the CGAL::RingNumberType concept for the homogeneous kernels, respectively. Note however, that in the current state, the Nef polyhedron works only with Cgal kernels. The implementation makes use of Cgal specific functions in kernel objects, and does not yet offer a designed interface to a clean kernel concept that could be offered by an external kernel as well.
The example creates two Nef polyhedra  N0 is the empty set, while N1 represents the full space, i.e., the set of all points in the 3dimensional space. The assertion assures that the empty set is the complement of the full space.
File: examples/Nef_3/nef_3_simple.cpp
#include <CGAL/Gmpz.h> #include <CGAL/Homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> typedef CGAL::Homogeneous<CGAL::Gmpz> Kernel; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<Kernel> Nef_polyhedron; int main() { Nef_polyhedron N0(Nef_polyhedron::EMPTY); Nef_polyhedron N1(Nef_polyhedron::COMPLETE); CGAL_assertion (N0 == N1.complement()); return 0; }
This example shows the various constructors. We can create the empty set, which is also the default constructor, and the full space, i.e. all points of ℝ^{3} belong to the polyhedron. We can create a halfspace defined by a plane bounding it. It is only available if an extended kernel is used. The halfspace constructor has a second parameter that specifies whether the defining plane belongs to the point set (Nef_polyhedron::INCLUDED) or not (Nef_polyhedron::EXCLUDED). The default value is Nef_polyhedron::INCLUDED. Additionally, we can create a Nef_polyhedron_3 from a Polyhedron_3, see the Section 28.5.4 below.
We can compute the point sets of two Nef polyhedra for equality and proper subset relationships. We offer the usual comparison operators ==, !=, <=, >=, < and >.
Nef polyhedra have the important feature that a representation that is called the reduced Würzburg structure is unique, i.e., two point sets of Nef polyhedra are equal if and only if the representations are equal. The proof for the reduced Würzburg structure carries over to our representation and the comparison operators are therefore trivial to implement.
File: examples/Nef_3/nef_3_construction.cpp
#include <CGAL/Gmpz.h> #include <CGAL/Extended_homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> typedef CGAL::Extended_homogeneous<CGAL::Gmpz> Kernel; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<Kernel> Nef_polyhedron; typedef Nef_polyhedron::Plane_3 Plane_3; int main() { Nef_polyhedron N0; Nef_polyhedron N1(Nef_polyhedron::EMPTY); Nef_polyhedron N2(Nef_polyhedron::COMPLETE); Nef_polyhedron N3(Plane_3( 1, 2, 5,1)); Nef_polyhedron N4(Plane_3( 1, 2, 5,1), Nef_polyhedron::INCLUDED); Nef_polyhedron N5(Plane_3( 1, 2, 5,1), Nef_polyhedron::EXCLUDED); CGAL_assertion(N0 == N1); CGAL_assertion(N3 == N4); CGAL_assertion(N0 != N2); CGAL_assertion(N3 != N5); CGAL_assertion(N4 >= N5); CGAL_assertion(N5 <= N4); CGAL_assertion(N4 > N5); CGAL_assertion(N5 < N4); N5 = N5.closure(); CGAL_assertion(N4 >= N5); CGAL_assertion(N4 <= N5); return 0; }
As explained in the introduction, Nef polyhedra are closed under all boolean set operations. The class Nef_polyhedron_3 provides functions and operators for the most common ones: complement (operator!), union (operator+), difference (operator), intersection (operator*) and symmetric difference (operator^). Additionally, the operators *=, =, *= and ^= are defined.
Nef_polyhedron_3 also provides the topological operations interior(), closure() and boundary(). With interior() one deselects all boundary items, with boundary() one deselects all volumes, and with closure() one selects all boundary items.
File: examples/Nef_3/point_set_operations.cpp
#include <CGAL/Gmpz.h> #include <CGAL/Extended_homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> typedef CGAL::Extended_homogeneous<CGAL::Gmpz> Kernel; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<Kernel> Nef_polyhedron; typedef Kernel::Plane_3 Plane_3; int main() { Nef_polyhedron N1(Plane_3( 1, 0, 0,1)); Nef_polyhedron N2(Plane_3(1, 0, 0,1)); Nef_polyhedron N3(Plane_3( 0, 1, 0,1)); Nef_polyhedron N4(Plane_3( 0,1, 0,1)); Nef_polyhedron N5(Plane_3( 0, 0, 1,1)); Nef_polyhedron N6(Plane_3( 0, 0,1,1)); Nef_polyhedron I1(!N1 + !N2); // open slice in yzplane Nef_polyhedron I2(N3  !N4); // closed slice in xzplane Nef_polyhedron I3(N5 ^ N6); // open slice in yzplane Nef_polyhedron Cube1(I2 * !I1); Cube1 *= !I3; Nef_polyhedron Cube2 = N1 * N2 * N3 * N4 * N5 * N6; CGAL_assertion(Cube1 == Cube2); // both are closed cube CGAL_assertion(Cube1 == Cube1.closure()); CGAL_assertion(Cube1 == Cube1.regularization()); CGAL_assertion((N1  N1.boundary()) == N1.interior()); CGAL_assertion(I1.closure() == I1.complement().interior().complement()); CGAL_assertion(I1.regularization() == I1.interior().closure()); return 0; }
Using the std::transform function, a Nef polyhedron can be translated, rotated and scaled. The usage is shown in the following example:
File: examples/Nef_3/transformation.cpp
#include <CGAL/Gmpz.h> #include <CGAL/Extended_homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Nef_polyhedron_iostream_3.h> //instead of //typedef CGAL::Extended_homogeneous<CGAL::Gmpz> Kernel; // workaround for VC++ struct Kernel : public CGAL::Extended_homogeneous<CGAL::Gmpz> {}; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<Kernel> Nef_polyhedron; typedef Nef_polyhedron::Plane_3 Plane_3; typedef Nef_polyhedron::Vector_3 Vector_3; typedef Nef_polyhedron::Aff_transformation_3 Aff_transformation_3; int main() { Nef_polyhedron N(Plane_3(0,1,0,0)); Aff_transformation_3 transl(CGAL::TRANSLATION, Vector_3(5, 7, 9)); Aff_transformation_3 rotx90(1,0,0, 0,0,1, 0,1,0, 1); Aff_transformation_3 scale(3,0,0, 0,3,0, 0,0,3, 2); N.transform(transl); CGAL_assertion(N == Nef_polyhedron(Plane_3(0,1,0,7))); N.transform(rotx90); CGAL_assertion(N == Nef_polyhedron(Plane_3(0,0,1,7))); N.transform(scale); CGAL_assertion(N == Nef_polyhedron(Plane_3(0,0,2,21))); return 0; }
Nef_polyhedron_3 provides an interface for the conversion between polyhedral surfaces represented with the CGAL::Polyhedron_3 class and Nef_polyhedron_3. Polyhedron_3 represents orientable 2manifold objects with boundaries. However, we exclude surfaces with boundaries from the conversion to Nef_polyhedron_3 since they have no properly defined volume.
Both conversion directions can only be performed if the boundary of the point set is an oriented closed 2manifold. Nef_polyhedron_3 provides the function is_simple() and Polyhedron_3 provides the function is_closed() to test for this property. The usage is illustrated by the example program below.
The conversion gives us the possibility to use several file formats. Polyhedron_3 can read the (.off) file format and can write the (.off), OpenInventor (.iv), VRML 1.0 and 2.0 (.wrl) and Wavefront Advanced Visualizer object format (.obj), see Section 25.4.
File: examples/Nef_3/interface_polyhedron.cpp
#include <CGAL/Gmpz.h> #include <CGAL/Homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Polyhedron_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Polyhedron_iostream.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Nef_polyhedron_iostream_3.h> #include <iostream> typedef CGAL::Homogeneous<CGAL::Gmpz> Kernel; typedef CGAL::Polyhedron_3<Kernel> Polyhedron; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<Kernel> Nef_polyhedron; typedef Kernel::Vector_3 Vector_3; typedef Kernel::Aff_transformation_3 Aff_transformation_3; int main() { Polyhedron P; std::cin >> P; if(P.is_closed()) { Nef_polyhedron N1(P); Nef_polyhedron N2(N1); Aff_transformation_3 aff(CGAL::TRANSLATION, Vector_3(2,2,0,1)); N2.transform(aff); N1 += N2; if(N1.is_simple()) { N1.convert_to_polyhedron(P); std::cout << P; } else std::cerr << "N1 is not a 2manifold." << std::endl; } }
The provided extended kernels are used the same way as any other Cgal kernel. The essential difference is, that coordinates are not represented by the number type that was used to parameterize the kernel type, but by a Nef_polynomial parametrized by that number type.
The example iterates all vertices of a given Nef polyhedron and decides whether it is an standard vertex or a vertex on the infimaximal box. Furthermore, it tests whether any of the vertices is at (R,R,R). Recall that R was the symbolical value, large but finite, for the size of the infimaximal box.
File: examples/Nef_3/extended_kernel.cpp
#include <CGAL/Gmpz.h> #include <CGAL/Extended_homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Nef_polyhedron_iostream_3.h> typedef CGAL::Gmpz NT; //instead of //typedef CGAL::Extended_homogeneous<NT> Kernel; // workaround for VC++ struct Kernel : public CGAL::Extended_homogeneous<NT> {}; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<Kernel> Nef_polyhedron; typedef Nef_polyhedron::RT RT; typedef Nef_polyhedron::Point_3 Point_3; typedef Nef_polyhedron::Plane_3 Plane_3; typedef Nef_polyhedron::Vertex_const_iterator Vertex_const_iterator; int main() { Nef_polyhedron N; std::cin >> N; Vertex_const_iterator v; for(v = N.vertices_begin(); v != N.vertices_end(); ++v) { Point_3 p(v>point()); if(p.hx().degree() > 0  p.hy().degree() > 0  p.hz().degree() > 0) std::cout << "extended vertex at " << p << std::endl; else std::cout << "standard vertex at " << p << std::endl; if(p == Point_3(RT(0,1), RT(0,1), RT(0,1))) std::cout << " found vertex (right,back,top) of the infimaximal box" << std::endl; } return 0; }
Nef_polyhedron_3 provides an input and an output operator for a proprietary file format. It includes the complete incidence structure, the geometric data, and the marks of each item. The output depends on the output operators of the geometric primitives provided by the traits class, and on the output operators of the used number type. Therefore, it is necessary to use the same kernel and the same number type for input and output operations.
We recommend the use of the Cgal kernels Homogeneous, Exact_predicates_exact_constructions_kernel, or Extended_homogeneous. The Homogeneous kernel provides reliable fast performance. In combination with leda_integer it is the fastest kernel for Nef_polyhedron_3. The Exact_predicates_exact_constructions_kernel uses filtering. In nondegenerate scenarios it's faster than the Homogeneous kernel. The most important advantage of the filtered kernel is that it is a Cartesian kernel, which allows the proper handling of OFF files using floatingpoint coordinates.
For effective filtering we had to change some concepts. The new concepts must be activated by using the SNC_indexed_items, because they don't apply for the extended kernels, yet. The new concepts also speed up Nef_polyhedron_3 also in combination with all other standard kernels. The following example illustrates their usage.
File: examples/Nef_3/handling_double_coordinates.cpp
#include <CGAL/Exact_predicates_exact_constructions_kernel.h> #include <CGAL/Polyhedron_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Polyhedron_iostream.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Nef_polyhedron_iostream_3.h> typedef CGAL::Exact_predicates_exact_constructions_kernel Kernel; typedef CGAL::Polyhedron_3<Kernel> Polyhedron; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<Kernel> Nef_polyhedron; int main() { Polyhedron P; std::cin >> P; Nef_polyhedron N(P); std::cout << "Exact_predicates_exact_constructions_kernel + SNC_indexed_items" << std::endl << " allows efficient handling of input " "using floating point coordinates" << std::endl; if(N.is_simple()) { N.convert_to_polyhedron(P); std::cout << P; } else { std::cout << N; } }
We provide compatibility between the input and output of various kernels. For most of the Cgal kernels it is possible to write a file constructed with one kernel and reread it with another. Also, it is possible to write a bounded Nef polyhedron using the Extended_homogeneous kernel and to read it afterwards using a standard kernel.
File: examples/Nef_3/nefIO.cpp
#include <CGAL/Gmpz.h> #include <CGAL/Homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Extended_homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Nef_polyhedron_iostream_3.h> #include <fstream> typedef CGAL::Gmpz NT; typedef CGAL::Homogeneous<NT> SK; typedef CGAL::Extended_homogeneous<NT> EK; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<SK> Nef_polyhedron_S; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<EK> Nef_polyhedron_E; int main() { Nef_polyhedron_E E; Nef_polyhedron_S S; std::cin >> E; if(E.is_bounded()) { std::ofstream out("temp.nef3"); out << E; std::ifstream in("temp.nef3"); in >> S; } }
A sphere map is explored by using the function get_sphere_map, which returns the sphere map of the specified vertex as a Nef_polyhedron_S2. Nef_polyhedron_S2 provides the functionality necessary for the exploration. Note, that one has to use the type Nef_polyhedron_S2 as specified in Nef_polyhedron_3 as is shown in the following example.
File: examples/Nef_3/exploration_SM.cpp
#include <CGAL/Gmpz.h> #include <CGAL/Homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Nef_polyhedron_iostream_3.h> typedef CGAL::Homogeneous<CGAL::Gmpz> Kernel; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<Kernel> Nef_polyhedron_3; int main() { // We've put the typedefs here as VC7 gives us an ICE if they are global typedefs typedef Nef_polyhedron_3::Vertex_const_iterator Vertex_const_iterator; typedef Nef_polyhedron_3::Nef_polyhedron_S2 Nef_polyhedron_S2; typedef Nef_polyhedron_S2::SVertex_const_handle SVertex_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron_S2::SHalfedge_const_handle SHalfedge_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron_S2::SHalfloop_const_handle SHalfloop_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron_S2::SFace_const_iterator SFace_const_iterator; typedef Nef_polyhedron_S2::SFace_cycle_const_iterator SFace_cycle_const_iterator; Nef_polyhedron_3 N; std::cin >> N; Vertex_const_iterator v = N.vertices_begin(); Nef_polyhedron_S2 S(N.get_sphere_map(v)); int i=0; SFace_const_iterator sf; for(sf = S.sfaces_begin(); sf != S.sfaces_end(); sf++) { SFace_cycle_const_iterator it; std::cout << "the sface cycles of sface " << i++ << " start with an\n"; for(it = sf>sface_cycles_begin(); it != sf>sface_cycles_end(); it++) { if (it.is_svertex()) std::cout << " svertex at position " << SVertex_const_handle(it)>point() << std::endl; else if (it.is_shalfedge()) std::cout << " shalfedge from " << SHalfedge_const_handle(it)>source()>point() << " to " << SHalfedge_const_handle(it)>target()>point() << std::endl; else if (it.is_shalfloop()) std::cout << " shalfloop lying in the plane " << SHalfloop_const_handle(it)>circle() << std::endl; // other cases can not occur. } } return 0; }
A shell of a Nef polyhedron is the connected part of the surface incident to a certain volume. Each halffacet, sface and shalfedge belongs to a single shell. The figure below illustrates the notion of a shell. It shows a Nef polyhedron with two volumes and three shells.
The first volume is the outer volume and the second volume is the interior of the cube. The first shell is the whole surface of the left object. The second shell is the outer surface of the right object, and the third shell is the inner surface of the right object.
In detail, the first shell consists of two halffacets, eight halfedges and four vertices. The second shell consists of the eight vertices of the cube plus the two endpoints of the antenna, all halffacets oriented outwards, and all halfedges. The third shell consists of the same eight vertices of the cube, plus the endpoint of the antenna that is in contact with the cube, all halffacets oriented inwards, and all halfedges (the same as for the second shell).
We discuss how sfaces, shalfedges, and sloops belong to the shells with a closeup view of the situation at the antenna foot. As you can see, there are three items on the sphere map  a shalfloop for each halffacet which intersects the sphere, and an svertex where the antenna intersects the sphere. The upper shalfloop lies on the halffacet which is oriented outwards and is therefore also oriented outwards. This shalfloop and the svertex belong to the second shell. The other shalfloop lies on the inwards oriented halffacet and is oriented inwards, too. This shalfloop belongs to the third shell.
Nef_polyhedron_3 offers a visitor interface to explore a shell following the wellknown visitor pattern [GHJV95]. The interface is illustrated by the following example.
File: examples/Nef_3/shell_exploration.cpp
#include <CGAL/Gmpz.h> #include <CGAL/Homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Nef_polyhedron_iostream_3.h> typedef CGAL::Homogeneous<CGAL::Gmpz> Kernel; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<Kernel> Nef_polyhedron; typedef Nef_polyhedron::Vertex_const_handle Vertex_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron::Halfedge_const_handle Halfedge_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron::Halffacet_const_handle Halffacet_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron::SHalfedge_const_handle SHalfedge_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron::SHalfloop_const_handle SHalfloop_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron::SFace_const_handle SFace_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron::Volume_const_iterator Volume_const_iterator; typedef Nef_polyhedron::Shell_entry_const_iterator Shell_entry_const_iterator; typedef Kernel::Point_3 Point_3; class Shell_explorer { bool first; const Nef_polyhedron& N; Vertex_const_handle v_min; public: Shell_explorer(const Nef_polyhedron& N_) : first(true), N(N_) {} void visit(Vertex_const_handle v) { if(first  CGAL::lexicographically_xyz_smaller(v>point(),v_min>point())) { v_min = v; first=false; } } void visit(Halfedge_const_handle ) {} void visit(Halffacet_const_handle ) {} void visit(SHalfedge_const_handle ) {} void visit(SHalfloop_const_handle ) {} void visit(SFace_const_handle ) {} Vertex_const_handle& minimal_vertex() { return v_min; } void reset_minimal_vertex() { first = true; } }; int main() { Nef_polyhedron N; std::cin >> N; int ic = 0; Volume_const_iterator c; Shell_explorer SE(N); CGAL_forall_volumes(c,N) { std::cout << "Volume " << ic++ << std::endl; int is = 0; Shell_entry_const_iterator it; CGAL_forall_shells_of(it,c) { SE.reset_minimal_vertex(); N.visit_shell_objects(SFace_const_handle(it),SE); Point_3 p(SE.minimal_vertex()>point()); std::cout << " minimal vertex of shell " << is++ << " is at " << p << std::endl; } } }
The function visit_shell_objects(SFace_const_handle sf, Visitor& V) explores a shell starting at the sf. The second argument expects any class providing the (possibly empty) functions visit(Vertex_const_handle), visit(Halfedge_const_handle) (remember that Halfedge is the same type as SVertex), visit(Halffacet_const_handle), visit(SHalfedge_const_handle), visit(SHalfloop_const_handle) and visit(SFace_const_handle). The visit_shell_objects function will call visit for each item belonging to the shell once. There are no further requirements on that class.
In the example, the class Shell_explorer is passed as second argument to visit_shell_objects. Its task is to find the lexicographically smallest vertex of a shell. Its internal state consists of three variables. The first one is a reference to the explored Nef polyhedron. This reference is often necessary to retrieve information from the Nef polyhedron. The second variable v_min stores the smallest vertex found so far, and the third variable first is initialized to false to signal that no vertex has been visited so far. After the first vertex has been visited first is changed to true.
Shell_explorer provides further member functions. After the exploration of a shell the minimal_vertex function retrieves the smallest vertex. The reset_minimal_vertex function allows one to use the same instance of Shell_explorer on multiple shells. In this case, the reset_minimal_vertex function has to be called between the exploration of two shells.
The example program uses the Shell_explorer for each shell of the given Nef polyhedron once and reports the smallest vertex of each shell to the standard output.
The locate(Point_3 p) function locates the point p in the Nef polyhedron and returns the item the point belongs to. The locate function returns an instance of Object_handle, which is a polymorphic handle type representing any handle type, no matter if it is mutable or const. For further usage of the result, the Object_handle has to be casted to the concrete handle type. The CGAL::assign function performs such a cast. It returns a boolean that reports the success or the failure of of the cast. Looking at the possible return values of the locate function, the Object_handle can represent a Vertex_const_handle, a Halfedge_const_handle, a Halffacet_handle, or a Volume_const_handle. One of the four casts will succeed.
File: examples/Nef_3/nef_3_point_location.cpp
#include <CGAL/Gmpz.h> #include <CGAL/Homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Nef_polyhedron_iostream_3.h> typedef CGAL::Homogeneous<CGAL::Gmpz> Kernel; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<Kernel> Nef_polyhedron_3; typedef Kernel::Point_3 Point_3; int main() { //We've put the typedefs here as VC7 gives us an ICE if they are global typedefs typedef Nef_polyhedron_3::Vertex_const_handle Vertex_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron_3::Halfedge_const_handle Halfedge_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron_3::Halffacet_const_handle Halffacet_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron_3::Volume_const_handle Volume_const_handle; typedef Nef_polyhedron_3::Object_handle Object_handle; Nef_polyhedron_3 N; std::cin >> N; Vertex_const_handle v; Halfedge_const_handle e; Halffacet_const_handle f; Volume_const_handle c; Object_handle o = N.locate(Point_3(0,0,0)); if(CGAL::assign(v,o)) std::cout << "Locating vertex" << std::endl; else if(CGAL::assign(e,o)) std::cout << "Locating edge" << std::endl; else if(CGAL::assign(f,o)) std::cout << "Locating facet" << std::endl; else if(CGAL::assign(c,o)) std::cout << "Locating volume" << std::endl; //other cases can not occur return 0; }
With the Qt_widget_OpenGL class an interface to OpenGL visualization via Qt is offered. The class knows how to handle mouse movements and clicks and how to move and scale the 3D object displayed in the widget. Qt_widget_OpenGL is a basis for writing Qt widgets displaying 3D objects. A user can derive a new class from Qt_widget_OpenGL which implements the drawing method and configures the context menus.
Qt_widget_Nef_3 implements the drawing methods for displaying instances of Nef_polyhedron_3. The following example shows how to set up an QApplication with a main widget of type Qt_widget_Nef_3 and how to start the viewer.
File: demo/Nef_3/visualization_SNC.cpp
#include <CGAL/basic.h> #include <CGAL/Gmpz.h> #include <CGAL/Homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Nef_polyhedron_iostream_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Qt_widget_Nef_3.h> #include <qapplication.h> typedef CGAL::Homogeneous<CGAL::Gmpz> Kernel; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<Kernel> Nef_polyhedron_3; int main(int argc, char* argv[]) { Nef_polyhedron_3 N; std::cin >> N; QApplication a(argc, argv); CGAL::Qt_widget_Nef_3<Nef_polyhedron_3>* w = new CGAL::Qt_widget_Nef_3<Nef_polyhedron_3>(N); a.setMainWidget(w); w>show(); return a.exec(); }
Qt_widget_Nef_S2 is a widget implemented on the basis of Qt_widget_OpenGL. It can be used to visualize the sphere map of a vertex in a Nef_polyhedron_3 using the interface between Nef_polyhedron_S2 and Nef_polyhedron_3.
File: demo/Nef_3/visualization_SM.cpp
#include <CGAL/basic.h> #include <CGAL/Gmpz.h> #include <CGAL/Homogeneous.h> #include <CGAL/Nef_polyhedron_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Nef_polyhedron_iostream_3.h> #include <CGAL/IO/Qt_widget_Nef_S2.h> #include <qapplication.h> typedef CGAL::Homogeneous<CGAL::Gmpz> Kernel; typedef CGAL::Nef_polyhedron_3<Kernel> Nef_polyhedron_3; int main(int argc, char* argv[]) { // We've put the typedefs here as VC7 gives us an ICE if they are global typedefs typedef Nef_polyhedron_3::Vertex_const_iterator Vertex_const_iterator; typedef Nef_polyhedron_3::Nef_polyhedron_S2 Nef_polyhedron_S2; Nef_polyhedron_3 N; std::cin >> N; Vertex_const_iterator v = N.vertices_begin(); Nef_polyhedron_S2 S(N.get_sphere_map(v)); QApplication a(argc, argv); CGAL::Qt_widget_Nef_S2<Nef_polyhedron_S2>* w = new CGAL::Qt_widget_Nef_S2<Nef_polyhedron_S2>(S); a.setMainWidget(w); w>show(); return a.exec(); }